niger kongo

Nijer-Kongo dilleri, Afrika'nın konuşur, coğrafî yayılım ve dil sayısı bakımından en büyük dil ailesidir. The Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP) also groups many Niger-Congo branches together. Die Niger-Kongo-tale is een van vier algemeen erkende taalfamilies in Afrika. "Niger-Congo languages [8] Similar classifications to Niger–Congo have been made ever since Diedrich Westermann in 1922. Accessed 21 Oct. 2020. . However, the language of Zialo has a nasal equivalent for each of its seven oral vowels. For example, in Bantu, the Swahili language is called Kiswahili, while the Swahili people are Waswahili. Katla and Rashad languages show isoglosses with Benue-Congo that the other families lack.[25]. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. The earliest attestation of Niger-Congo words are found in Portuguese documents of the 16th century and in a work of an Italian mathematician from the same period. These are minor languages, spoken by a total of about 100,000 people according to 1980s estimates. —— (2011) "Can Sino-Tibetan and Austroasiatic help us understand the evolution of Niger–Congo noun classes? Konuşur sayısına göre Nijer-Kongo dilleri. Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). De Wolf, P. 1971. Williamson, K. 1971. 2016. le Saout (1973) for an early overview, Stewart (1976) for a diachronic, Volta–Congo wide analysis, Capo (1981) for a synchronic analysis of nasality in Gbe (see, As noted by Williamson (1989:24). Die Niger-Kongo-tale grens in die noordweste en die buitenste noordooste aan Afro-Asiatiese, in die sentrale en oostelike gebied Soedan aan Nilo-Sahariese tale. Boston University Papers in African History, 1:1–15. The genetic relationship of some branches is not universally accepted, and the cladistic connection between those who are accepted as related may also be unclear. Using genetic, anthropological, linguistic and historical evidence Dr. Clyde Winters explains that ancient Egypt was a multiethnic society in which each of the 42 sepats or nomes (Egyptian administrative centers) was dominated by a different ethnic group, who probably spoke various Niger-Congo languages. The earliest evidence of a Niger-Congo language dates back to Portuguese records of the 16th century. Niger-Congo languages, a family of languages of Africa, which in terms of the number of languages spoken, their geographic extent, and the number of speakers is by far the largest language family in Africa. For example, in Nawuri, the diminutive suffix /-bi/ will cause the underlying [−ATR] vowels in a word to become phonetically [+ATR]. 17 Oct. 2020 . [4], It is the third-largest language family in the world by a number of native speakers, comprising around 700 million people as of 2015. Die Niger-Kongo-tale bevat sowat 1400 tale wat deur omtrent 400 miljoen mense in Afrika suid van die Sahara gebesig word. [31] It has been asserted that this is because vowel quality differences in the mid-central region where /ə/, the counterpart of /a/, is found, are difficult to perceive. The most widely spoken Niger–Congo languages by number of native speakers are Yoruba, Igbo, Fula and Zulu. Other branches lacking any trace of the noun-class system are Dogon and Ijaw, whereas the Talodi branch of Kordofanian does have cognate noun classes, suggesting that Kordofanian is also not a unitary group. The first book in a Niger-Congo language was a catechism in Kongo, a Bantu language, published in 1624. Whereas Claudi (1993) argues for SVO on the basis of existing SVO > SOV grammaticalization paths, Gensler (1997) points out that the notion of 'basic word order' is problematic as it excludes structures with, for example, auxiliaries. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Greenberg's work on African languages, though initially greeted with scepticism, became the prevailing view among scholars.[26].

Other primary branches may include Dogon, Mande, Ijo, Katla and Rashad.

), ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language, "The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara", The Benue-Congo languages: a proposed internal classification, "Roger Blench: Niger-Congo reconstruction", [ATR] Harmony in an Eleven Vowel Language, "Nawuri ATR Harmony in Typological Perspective", Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, An Evaluation of Niger–Congo Classification, Swadesh lists of African proto-language reconstructions, Phonologies and orthographies of African languages,–Congo_languages&oldid=982665945, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [8][13][14][15][16][17] These estimates of the place of origin of the Benue-Congo language family do not fix a date for the start of that expansion, other than that it must have been sufficiently prior to the Bantu expansion to allow for the diversification of the languages within this language family that includes Bantu. Just before these articles were collected in final book form (The Languages of Africa) in 1963, he amended his classification by adding Kordofanian as a branch co-ordinate with Niger–Congo as a whole; consequently, he renamed the family Congo–Kordofanian, later Niger–Kordofanian.

a family of languages of Africa consisting of the Bantu languages together with most of the languages of the coastal regions of West Africa. [39][40][41] On the other hand, Stewart, in recent comparative work, reconstructs a seven-vowel system for his proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu.[42]. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'?

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